Early Intervention Services 0-4 yrs.

Pre School Readiness Skills 4-6 yrs.

School for Special Education 6-16 yrs.

Pre Voc & Vocational Centre 18+ yrs.

Recreational & Activity Club 5+ yrs.

Remedial Teaching Services Speech, OT,

Mental Disability

Postnatal and Development Causes

During development, before and after birth, the brain may have chances of being damaged and this can result in mentally challenged. In the period after birth, a number of factors can cause brain damage :

     1. Nutrition

     2. Infections

     3. Trauma

     4. Toxic

1. Nutrition :

Nutritional factors can have an effect on the mental development of a child. Severe malnourishment in infancy leads to poorer performance in school. Poor physical growth, immaturity in social behaviour, backwardness in school as well as challenge in growth are a result of malnutrition. Those infants who are malnourished, either through ignorance or through the relative poverty of their parents, will also be in a high-risk group for social and emotional deprivation. Malnutrition may lead to mentally challenged.

Neonatal hypoglycemia can cause serious damage leading to mentally challenged and epilepsy. In later life it can lead to irreversible brain damage.

2. Infections :

Various infections in childhood carry the risk of brain damage as a complication. This could result in mentally challenged and associated handicaps to some degree. Some of the infections that can cause mentally challenged are - Meningitis: Meningitis causes pyrexia, vomiting, convulsions and neck stiffness due to brain oedema and swelling. The resulting pressure may cause obstruction of the blood supply to the brain tissue with extensive death of brain cells and may result in mentally challenged.

Encephalitis : Following viral infections such as rubella, chicken pox and mumps, the brain substance can become infected. This is known as encephalitis. Post vaccination encephalitis is rare but has been noted, following whooping cough and other vaccinations. While the incidence of encephalitis is rare the degree of mentally challenged that may result, can be severe.

Malignant Growth : Mental deterioration can occur in children with brain tumors. The kind of challenge and the degree would depend on the parts of the brain affected. Surgical intervention can help reduce damage and improve the quality of life for the child.

3. Trauma:

Head Injury : Severe assault to the head in an accident can cause brain damage. E.g. the child being thrown through the windscreen of a motorcar. Any accident where oxygen deprivation to the brain occurs, be it a blow to the head or near drowning, can result in irreversible brain damage if the deprivation lasts for more than 4-5 minutes. mentally challenged due to head injury may occur any time in children and adults. Most common causes are due to road traffic accidents. Symptoms and signs may include loss of speech, motor and sensory defects, cranial nerve palsies, poor motivation, lack of interest in surroundings, memory defects, psychiatric disorders and epilepsy.

Battered Baby Syndrome is the name given to a group of damaged children whose injuries are non-accidental in origin. A parent or a caretaker usually causes the injuries. The event of brain damage and the degree of mental handicap will depend on the extent of the injuries.

4. Toxic :

As in the prenatal period, toxic substances can damage the developing brain of the child leading to mentally challenged. Lead poisoning or intoxication may also cause brain damage. It was fairly common in the past when water supply pipes were made of lead and when the base for paint contained lead. The danger of lead in motor vehicle exhaust fumes causes a certain degree of brain damage. Other materials from industrial sources in particular, which are increasingly polluting the environment, are being linked with brain damage.